The history of MariaDB replication has reached a point where replication can almost in any case catch up with the master. It can be ensured using new features like Group Commit improvement, optimistic in-order parallel replication and semi-synchronous replication.
MariaDB 10.1 settings for in-order optimistic parallel replication:
slave_parallel_mode = optimistic slave_domain_parallel_threads = %%ENV:CORES%% slave_parallel_threads = %%ENV:CORES%% expire_logs_days = 5 sync_binlog = 1 log_slave_updates = ON
Semi-synchronous replication enables to delay transaction commit until the transactional event reaches at least one replica. The "In Sync" status will be lost only when a tunable replication delay is attained. This Sync status is checked by replication-manager to compute the last SLA metrics, the time we may auto-failover without losing data and when we can reintroduce the dead leader without re-provisioning it.
The MariaDB recommended settings for semi-sync:
plugin_load = "semisync_master.so;semisync_slave.so" rpl_semi_sync_master = ON rpl_semi_sync_slave = ON loose_rpl_semi_sync_master_enabled = ON loose_rpl_semi_sync_slave_enabled = ON rpl_semi_sync_master_timeout = 10
Such parameters will print an expected warning in error.log on slaves about SemiSyncMaster Status switched OFF.
Important Note: semisync SYNC status does not guarantee that the old leader is replication consistent with the cluster in case of crash MDEV-11855 or shutdown MDEV-11853 of the master,the failure can leave more data in the binary log but it guarantees that no client applications have seen those pending transactions if they have not reach a replica.
This leads to a situation where semisync is used to slowdown the workload to the speed of the network until it reaches a timeout where it is not possible to catch up anymore. A crash or shutdown will lead to the requirement of re-provisioning the old leader from another node in most heavy write scenarios.
Setting rpl_semi_sync_master_wait_point to AFTER_SYNC may limit the number of extra transactions inside the binlog after a crash but those transactions would have been made visible to the clients and may have been lost during failover to an other node. It is highly recommended to keep AFTER_COMMIT to make sure the workload is safer.